Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (vaccine) to stimulate adaptive immunity for a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by many pathogens.
Inoculation is the placement of something that will grow or reproduce, and is most Continue reading
commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum, a vaccine or antigenic substance into the body of a human or animal, especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease.
It can also be used to refer to the communication of a disease to a living organism by transferring its causative agent into the organism.
Today the terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are used more or less interchangeably and popularly refer to the process of artificial induction of immunity against various diseases. The micro-organism used in an inoculation is called inoculant or inoculum.
Four different types of vaccines are currently available.
-Attenuated – (weakened) live virus is used in the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), polio and the chickenpox vaccine.
-Killed – (inactivated) vaccines are made from a protein or other small pieces taken from a bacteria. These vaccines are considered to be safe, even in people with weakened immune systems. Influenza shots are an example of this type of vaccine.
-Toxoid vaccines contain a toxin or chemical made by the bacteria or virus. They make you immune to the harmful effects of the infection, rather than to the infection itself. Examples are the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines.
-Biosynthetic vaccines contain human-made substances that the immune system recognizes as infectious organisms.
Most vaccines are given by hypodermic injection as they are not absorbed reliably through the intestines. Live attenuated polio, some typhoid and some cholera vaccines are given orally in order to produce immunity based on bowels.
Like many medications, there is always the chance that an immunization can cause side effects. To minimize chances of adverse reactions the health of the child (or adult) at the time of vaccination is of outmost importance. Read more…